Medical News Today: What to know about dry mouth at night

The medical term form dry mouth is "xerostomia." Xerostomia can be an uncomfortable condition that can affect a person's sense of taste and may increase their risk of developing dental cavities.

Some people may experience dry mouth at night. This may be due to natural variations in how much saliva the body makes, but certain medical conditions can also cause it.

This article outlines the various causes of dry mouth at night and their associated treatment options. It also provides a list of home remedies for dry mouth.

Causes of dry mouth at night

The following are some potential causes of dry mouth at night.

Natural variation in saliva production

a man drinking a bottle of water in bed because he has a Dry mouth at nightShare on Pinterest
Dry mouth at night may be due to variations in saliva production.

According to an article in the journal Compendium, a person's salivary glands typically produce less saliva at night. As a result, some people may notice that their mouths feel drier in the evening.


A doctor may prescribe special mouthwashes that can moisten the mouth and reduce sensations of dry mouth before bedtime.

People should also consider keeping a glass of water by their bedside. If a person wakes up with a dry mouth, drinking some water will help moisten the mouth.


According to the Oral Cancer Foundation, an estimated 20% of older adults struggle with dry mouth. In older adults, this condition usually occurs as a result of dehydration or as a side effect of certain medications.

Older adults who wear dentures may find that they no longer fit properly as a result of dry mouth. Without adequate saliva, dentures can rub against the gums, causing sore spots.


A person who experiences dry mouth should visit their doctor or dentist who will help determine the cause of the condition.

If dry mouth is due to the medications a person is taking, the doctor or dentist may recommend changing the dosage or switching to a different drug.

In some cases, people may receive medications to improve the function of the salivary glands.

Medication side effects

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services state that more than 400 medicines can reduce the body's ability to produce saliva. People who take their medications at nighttime may notice their dry mouth symptoms worsening at night.

Some medications that can cause dry mouth include:


A person should see their doctor if they suspect that their medication is causing dry mouth. However, people should not stop taking their medications unless they have their doctor's approval to do so.

A doctor may suggest lowering the dosage of the medication or taking the drug earlier in the day. Sometimes, a doctor may suggest changing to a different medicine that does not cause dry mouth.

The doctor may also recommend the following:

  • taking medications with plenty of water
  • sipping on water at nighttime
  • chewing on gum to encourage saliva production
  • using a humidifier to release moisture into the air and alleviate sensations of dry mouth

Mouth breathing

Some people wake up during the night and notice that they have an extremely dry mouth. This can be a sign that they have been breathing through their mouth while asleep. Some possible causes of this behavior include:


The treatment for nighttime mouth breathing depends on the underlying cause. We outline the potential causes and their associated treatment options below.


Antibiotics can help to treat a bacterial infection, while decongestants may help to alleviate any associated sinus congestion.


Antihistamines can help to treat allergies, while corticosteroids may also help to relieve any associated nasal inflammation and stuffiness.

Sleep apnea

People who experience sleep apnea may require a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. The CPAP is a mask that fits over the mouth or nose and blows air into the airways to keep them open during sleep.

Although the treatment is effective against sleep apnea, the constant stream of air can actually worsen symptoms of a dry mouth. A person should talk to their doctor or dentist who can adjust the mask or recommend a machine that does not dry out the mouth.

Narrowed nasal passages

In some cases, people who have severe difficulty breathing through their nose may require surgery to widen the nasal passages. This will help to promote airflow through the nasal passages, preventing the need for mouth breathing.

Sjogren's syndrome

Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the body attacks its tear glands and saliva-producing glands. As a result, a person who has Sjogren's syndrome will typically experience sensations of dry mouth. This symptom may worsen at nighttime when the salivary glands naturally produce less saliva.

People with Sjogren's syndrome may experience the following symptoms as a result of dry mouth:

  • difficulty swallowing food without a drink
  • pain in the mouth
  • speech problems at night

They may also experience dryness in their eyes, nose, throat, or vagina.


Doctors may prescribe medications to reduce dry mouth and encourage saliva production. Examples include pilocarpine (Salagen) and cevimeline (Evoxac).

A doctor will also encourage people with Sjogren's syndrome to drink water frequently, and chew sugar-free gum to stimulate saliva production.

Home remedies for dry mouth

Regardless of the underlying cause of dry mouth at night, the following home remedies can help reduce sensations of dry mouth:

  • avoiding caffeinated drinks at night
  • avoiding smoking and use of tobacco products, which can dry out the mouth
  • chewing sugarless gu or sucking sugar-free lozenges or hard candies to stimulate saliva production.
  • sipping cool water frequently throughout the day

To reduce the risk of dental cavities associated with dry mouth, people should maintain good oral hygiene. This involves flossing daily and brushing the teeth twice a day using fluoride toothpaste.

People who have a very dry mouth may require more frequent dental check-ups. This is to ensure that they have not developed cavities.

When to see a doctor

Dry mouth at night is rarely a medical emergency. However, in some cases, it may indicate a need for medical treatment.

People should see a doctor if they experience any of the following:

  • dry mouth that is affecting their sleep at night
  • dry mouth that causes pain and discomfort
  • increased incidence of dental cavities without any change in dental routine


Dry mouth at night can occur as a result of a normal nighttime decrease in saliva production.

However, dry mouth at night can also be a symptom of an acute illness or an underlying medical condition.

People should see a doctor if their dry mouth causes pain or discomfort or affects their sleep and overall sense of well-being. A doctor will work to diagnose the cause of dry mouth and will recommend appropriate treatments.

Original Article

Medical News Today: What to know about ethmoid sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. Ethmoid sinusitis is the inflammation of a specific group of sinuses — the ethmoid sinuses — which sit between the nose and eyes.

The ethmoid sinuses are hollow spaces in the bones around the nose. They have a lining of mucus to help prevent the nose from drying out. Inflammation of the ethmoid sinuses can lead to pressure and pain around the nose and between the eyes.

In this article, we look at the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of ethmoid sinusitis and when to see a doctor. We also discuss how to treat and prevent ethmoid sinusitis.


a woman blowing her nose because she has ethmoid sinusitisShare on Pinterest
A person with ethmoid sinusitis may experience a runny or blocked nose.

The mucous lining of the sinuses traps dust, germs, and pollutants. When the sinuses become inflamed, the mucus cannot flow normally. Tissue swelling traps mucus in the sinuses, which can allow germs to grow.

In ethmoid sinusitis, this inflammation affects the ethmoid sinuses. People have four groups of sinuses, each of which can become inflamed:

  • frontal
  • maxillary
  • sphenoid
  • ethmoid

The causes of ethmoid sinusitis will typically be similar to those of other forms of sinusitis. They may include:

  • a viral infection, including the common cold
  • seasonal allergies
  • smoking or secondhand smoke
  • a weakened immune system
  • the narrowing of the nasal passages due to nasal polyps


A person with ethmoid sinusitis may experience many symptoms common to all sinus infections. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), these can include:

  • a runny nose
  • a blocked nose
  • pain around the face
  • a feeling of pressure around the face
  • headaches
  • mucus dripping down into the throat from the nose
  • a sore throat
  • a cough
  • bad breath

In addition, they may experience symptoms specific to ethmoid sinusitis because of the position of these sinuses near the eyes. These symptoms include a swollen, red, or painful eye.

Sinusitis can either be acute, meaning that a person has it for only a short time, or chronic, where it lasts for more than 12 weeks, even with treatment.

When to see a doctor

As with other types of sinusitis, the most common cause of ethmoid sinusitis is a virus, such as the common cold. In these cases, it will often resolve without a person needing to see a doctor.

According to the CDC, a person should speak to a doctor if:

  • they have very intense symptoms, such as severe pain in the face or a severe headache
  • their symptoms get better but then get worse
  • their symptoms do not get better over more than 10 days
  • they have a fever for more than 3–4 days


When diagnosing ethmoid sinusitis, a doctor will ask the person how they have been feeling and carry out a physical examination to look for the characteristic signs and symptoms of sinusitis. These may include:

  • congestion, obstruction, or blockage in and around the nose
  • significant amounts of mucus in the nose
  • facial pressure or pain

The doctor may also look into the person's nose, throat, or ears for visible signs of inflammation. After this examination, if the doctor is not certain about the correct diagnosis, they may also insert a thin tube with a light and a camera on the end into the nose to examine the sinus tissues.

Occasionally, a doctor may recommend an X-ray or a CT scan to determine the likely cause of the person's symptoms.


According to the CDC, a person's sinus infection will usually get better on its own. However, if a doctor suspects a bacterial infection, they may prescribe antibiotics.

The doctor may also prescribe:

  • decongestants to help drain the sinuses
  • antihistamines to reduce inflammation resulting from an allergic reaction
  • nasal steroids to reduce inflammation in and around the nose
  • saline nasal sprays, which increase moisture in the nose
  • pain relievers, if a person's sinusitis is causing a lot of pain

The CDC also note that home remedies may help some people. They recommend putting a warm compress over the affected area or breathing in steam from a bowl of hot water or a shower.

Read more about how to treat sinus infections here.


People can often prevent sinus infections by taking steps to stay healthy and to help others stay healthy. These include:

  • practicing good hand hygiene
  • getting the recommended vaccines, such as the flu and pneumococcal vaccines
  • avoiding contact with people who currently have an upper respiratory infection, including a cold
  • avoiding smoke and secondhand smoke
  • using a clean humidifier at home to add moisture to the air


Most people should find that ethmoid sinusitis resolves on its own with some basic self-care and home remedies. If a doctor thinks that ethmoid sinusitis is due to a bacterial infection, they may prescribe antibiotics, which are usually very effective.

According to an article in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, if nasal polyps or a problem with the structure of a person's nasal passage is causing their ethmoid sinusitis, they may require surgery to reduce the likelihood of their ethmoid sinusitis reoccurring.

People may wish to see their doctor for more information about the causes, treatment, and prevention of sinusitis, particularly if the condition is chronic.

Original Article

Medical News Today: What to know about nasal vestibulitis

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Nasal vestibulitis, or nasal folliculitis, is a rare type of bacterial infection at the opening of the nose. It may look like a pimple or sore just inside the nose. It often develops when hair follicles become infected, such as after a person picks their nose or plucks their nose hair.

Some cancer treatments may also increase the risk of nasal vestibulitis.

In this article, learn more about the causes of and treatments for nasal vestibulitis, as well as when to see a doctor.


a man plucking his nose hair which may give him nasal vestibulitisShare on Pinterest
Plucking nose hair is a possible cause of nasal vestibulitis.

Nasal vestibulitis is an infection in the vestibule, or the entrance of the nose. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria cause most infections.

Although anyone can get this infection, certain risk factors make a person more likely to experience it. These risk factors include:

A weakened immune system: Some conditions, such as diabetes, and certain medications may make the immune system weaker, increasing the risk of infection.

  • Nose picking: People who frequently pick their nose may scratch the skin, causing tiny injuries through which bacteria can enter. Nose picking can also introduce bacteria from other areas, such as the mouth or hands, into the nose.
  • Plucking nasal hair: Plucking the hair of the nose may irritate the skin and create tiny tears, increasing the risk of infection.
  • Frequent nose blowing: This can irritate the nose and cause it to swell. Blowing the nose may also spread bacteria from one area of the nose to another.
  • Nose piercings: Nose piercings may provide an opening for infection to enter. Before the infection heals, the body treats it as an open wound, and bacteria may get into the wound.
  • Cancer treatment: Chemotherapy weakens the immune system, making a person more vulnerable to certain infections. It may also dry out the nose, causing it to crack open or bleed, allowing infection to enter.

Learn about some of the best ways to remove nose hair here.


People with nasal vestibulitis may notice a pimple-like growth inside the nose. Sometimes, there are several such growths. Popping or picking these growths can cause the infection to worsen.

Some other symptoms a person might notice include:

  • pain in or around the nose
  • crusting inside the nose
  • swelling
  • dryness in the nose
  • itching
  • bleeding
  • unexplained oozing from the skin just inside the nose

Some people with nasal vestibulitis may have a recent history of nose injuries, such as from a nose piercing or due to picking the nose. Others may notice that their nose felt dry or cracked before the infection appeared.

If the infection is severe or spreads to other areas of the body, a person may develop a fever. This is rare, however.

Nasal vestibulitis does not tend to be dangerous, but if a person does not seek treatment for it, the infection may spread. Also, although this is likely extremely rare, researchers have reason to believe that the infection can spread to the skull or the brain.


In most cases, the first-line treatment for nasal vestibulitis will be applying a warm compress to the infected area a few times per day. A doctor might also recommend an antibiotic cream called mupirocin, which can prevent infection from spreading and reduce the risk of it returning.

For more severe infections, a doctor may prescribe an oral antibiotic for a person to take over 7–10 days. Many doctors recommend dicloxacillin.

Some people may develop a painful, infected boil called a furuncle. If this occurs, a doctor may recommend surgically removing and draining the furuncle to prevent the infection from returning or spreading. Never attempt to pop a boil at home, as this can increase the risk of infection.

Nasal vestibulitis tends to be a benign condition. However, in rare cases, it can spread to other areas of the body. For this reason, a person should seek prompt treatment. Home remedies alone will not cure the infection.

That being said, one 2018 study found that rose geranium oil might reduce the nasal side effects of some cancer treatments. People undergoing chemotherapy can ask their doctors about using rose geranium oil to reduce the risk of infection. The oil may also help the infection clear more quickly.

However, be sure to wash the hands before use, as applying the oil with dirty hands may spread additional bacteria to the area.

A person can use a number of other strategies to reduce the risk of spreading the infection or getting it again. Try the following:

  • Avoid plucking the nose hairs.
  • Avoid picking the nose.
  • Wash the hands before touching or blowing the nose.
  • Only blow the nose as much as is absolutely necessary.
  • Ask a doctor about strategies for minimizing nose dryness.
  • Seek appropriate treatment for any other medical conditions, such as diabetes.

When to see a doctor

Nasal vestibulitis is highly treatable, especially when a person seeks treatment early. See a doctor if:

  • The nose feels sore or itchy, or there is a rash, redness, or a pimple inside the nose.
  • The symptoms of nasal vestibulitis do not improve after a few days of taking antibiotics.
  • The infection spreads or a person develops a fever after beginning to take antibiotics.
  • A person undergoing chemotherapy or taking drugs that weaken the immune system develops a dry, cracked, or sore nose.

Nasal vestibulitis is not normally an emergency. However, if a person with a weak immune system develops a fever, they should go to the emergency room straight away.

Ask a healthcare professional if there are any other symptoms to look out for. For example, chills or fatigue might be a sign that the infection has spread.


An infection at the entrance of the nose can be very painful, especially for someone who has allergies, a dry nose, or a sinus infection.

With prompt medical treatment, the infection can improve in just a few days. Nasal vestibulitis is not a serious condition, but in rare cases, it can cause severe complications if a person does not seek and receive treatment for it.

Do not delay care, as this gives the infection time to spread.

Rose geranium is available for purchase online.

Original Article