A team at George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, has uncovered another electronic cigarette health concern. This time, it relates to stroke risk.
In recent years, the popularity of e-cigarettes has soared.
A 2016 study found that 10.8 million adults in the United States were current e-cigarette users. It is common for people to switch from traditional cigarettes to the e-variety because they think they are a healthier option.
But newly issued health warnings have pointed to the potential risks of smoking e-cigarettes. In June 2019, the U.S. saw an outbreak of lung injuries associated with e-cigarettes.
Experts believe that vitamin E acetate — an ingredient found in some e-cigarettes containing THC — may be the link.
In December 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that more than 2,500 individuals from the U.S., Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands were hospitalized or died as a result of using vapes, e-cigarettes, or associated products.
Recent studies, albeit small-scale, have found both benefits and risks to e-cigarettes.
However, a second study, appearing in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, noted a significant improvement in vascular health within a month of a traditional smoker switching to e-cigarettes.
A trend among the young
Despite their nicotine content, the variety of e-cigarette flavors available has led to the products becoming a trend among young adults. There is also a concern this habit could lead to conventional cigarette smoking.
Equally worrying findings have come from a new study that appears in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. The study found that young adults smoking both traditional and e-cigarettes face a significantly higher risk of stroke.
Using data from the 2016-17 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the study examined smoking-related responses from a total of 161,529 people aged between 18 and 44.
Just over half of the respondents were female, with 50.6% identifying as white and just under a quarter identifying as Hispanic.
The team calculated the adjusted odds ratios for strokes among those who currently smoked, former smokers who now used e-cigarettes, and people who used both.
"It's long been known that smoking cigarettes is among the most significant risk factors for stroke," says lead investigator Tarang Parekh from George Mason University.
"Our study shows that young smokers who also use e-cigarettes put themselves at an even greater risk."
An important message and a 'wake-up call'
The study identified that young adults who smoked both traditional and e-cigarettes were almost twice as likely to have a stroke compared with conventional cigarette smokers.
This risk rose to almost three times as likely when compared with non-smokers. Results also showed there was no clear advantage to switching from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes.
However, people using e-cigarettes who had never smoked before did not display an increased stroke risk. This may be down to factors including young age and normal heart health.
This study relied on self-reported data, which is a limitation. However, the findings prove the need for large-scale, long-term studies to confirm which detrimental health effects e-cigarettes are causing and which ingredients are responsible.
"This is an important message for young smokers who perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful and consider them a safer alternative," Parekh states.
According to Parekh, the results are "a wake-up call" for policymakers to urgently regulate e-cigarette products "to avoid economic and population health consequences."
"We have begun understanding the health impact of e-cigarettes and concomitant cigarette smoking, and it's not good."